Time Line of Events

History affecting and influencing the trans and intersex
movement in Africa

This time line of the history of the trans and intersex movement in Africa emerged through the grassroots experiences and memories of the contributing African activists and organisations. It is often updated with new stories and the time line is continually growing.

How to navigate the time line

Categories are displayed alphabetically at the top of the time line and can be used to filter the results to focus on the research theme chosen.

  • COMMUNITY – A person’s contribution, experience or accomplishment
  • DIASPORA – Experience or accomplishment from a trans or intersex person originally from Africa
  • INTERSEX – The entry only relates to the intersex movement or community
  • LGBTIQ – An event that also had an effect or influence on the trans and intersex movement
  • ORGANISATION – Contributions from African Organisations
  • TIME LINE STORIES – All the entries from all the categories
  • TRANS – The entry only relates to the trans movement or community

Gender categories have flag icons and colour groups to visually distinguish them from one another:

  • All
  • Community
  • Diaspora
  • Intersex
  • Legislation
  • LGBTIQ
  • Organisation
  • Trans
  • Trans & Intersex
  • Uncatogorised
  • 1950

    1950s to late 1970’s – Carnivals:A Safe Space For Travestis, Crossdressers And Queer Performers In Mozambique 

    While cross-dressing, queerness, homosexuality, and all forms of LGBTIQ+ identities as known today were not widely accepted in day-to-day life in Mozambique, during the 1950s through the 1960s to the mid-1970s, the annual Carnival, which had been taking place from the 1950s, provided an opportunity for [male] femininity, cross-dressing, and queer performances.  There was no …

    1950s to late 1970’s – Carnivals:A Safe Space For Travestis, Crossdressers And Queer Performers In Mozambique  Read More »

  • 1975

    1975 – Military Coup Ends “Carnivalesque”, Mozambique

    In the early 1970s, Mozambique was still under colonial rule. Then, in April 1974, political upheaval in Lisbon, Portugal resulted in a coup within the Portuguese military and the dictatorship in Portugal was overthrown. This had a ripple effect on the colonies, including Angola and Mozambique. The Lusaka Accord was signed in September of that …

    1975 – Military Coup Ends “Carnivalesque”, Mozambique Read More »

  • 1 October 1992

    Commencement of the Births and Deaths Registration Act, South Africa

    The Births and Deaths Registration Act, Act 51 of 1992 prohibited transsexual* people from having their sex status amended in the Births and Deaths Register unless they could provide proof that they were in their transition process prior to 1992.  As such, from 1992, no new transitions were legally allowed.  Transsexuals’ sex transitions** were encouraged …

    Commencement of the Births and Deaths Registration Act, South Africa Read More »

  • 1994

    The Travestis, Ivory Coast

    In the Ivory Coast, the Travestis* was a prominent group, recognised and documented from the early 1990s, but they were most likely active before the 90s**. They formed L’association des Travestis de CĂ´te d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast Transvestites Association), under the leadership of Barbara.  The first record of the group is from printed media in 1994, …

    The Travestis, Ivory Coast Read More »

  • 1998

    Woubi Chéri, Ivory Coast

    The documentary, Woubi ChĂ©ri, focused on the lives of Woubis*, Yossis**, and other members of the BranchĂ©*** community in Ivory Coast. The award-winning documentary was featured globally in various film festivals and on a number of documentary platforms.  Shortly after Woubi ChĂ©ri’s release, Barbara from L’Association des Travestis de CĂ´te d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast Transvestites Association), …

    Woubi ChĂ©ri, Ivory Coast Read More »

  • 2000

    The first African Intersex Organisation formed, South Africa

    Anti-Apartheid and intersex activist, Sally Gross, worked with a reporter from the Mail & Guardian to populate and provide information to the public to educate about Intersex and to create awareness around the formation of the Intersex Society of South Africa (ISOSA), a name modelled on the Intersex Society of North America, as Sally had …

    The first African Intersex Organisation formed, South Africa Read More »

  • 9 February 2003

    Zimbabwe Unwittingly Represented by a Trans Woman at the Cricket World Cup, South Africa

    South Africa hosted the 2003 Cricket World Cup, and on 9 February 2003, during the Parade of Nations and as part of the opening ceremony, the event’s organisers appointed models to walk in the parade, holding banners to represent each participating country. Senegalese-born model, Barbara Diop, had done modelling work in South Africa (she moved …

    Zimbabwe Unwittingly Represented by a Trans Woman at the Cricket World Cup, South Africa Read More »

  • 9 September 2003

    Parliamentary Hearings on the Alteration of Sex Description and Sex Status Act, South Africa

    9 September 2003 – A group of organisations and interested individuals, including Sally Gross, Simone Heradien, Estian Smit, members of the Cape Town Transsexual/Transgender Support Group, the South African Human Rights Commission, and the Commission on Gender Equality, made oral presentations during the parliamentary hearings to advocate for amendments to the Sex Description and Sex …

    Parliamentary Hearings on the Alteration of Sex Description and Sex Status Act, South Africa Read More »

  • 3 December 2003

    Transgender Education & Advocacy (TEA) established, Kenya

    Transgender Education & Advocacy (TEA) was established in Kenya by Audrey Mbugua, working to defend the human rights of trans persons in Kenya. It was the first trans organisation to be established in Kenya.

  • 15 March 2004

    Alteration of Sex Description and Sex Status Act, South Africa

    Following on from the parliamentary hearings on 9 September 2003, the Sex Description and Sex Status Act, Act 49 of 2003 was altered, signed by the President of South Africa and circulated in the Government Gazette, on 15 March 2004. The Act was amended in 2004 to address the concerns that arose after the Act was enacted in …

    Alteration of Sex Description and Sex Status Act, South Africa Read More »

195019751 October 19921994199820009 February 20039 September 20033 December 200315 March 2004